The Call to Testify That None is Worthy of Worship Except Allah
Allah SWT says:
"Say (O Muhammad) : "This is my way; I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. And Glorified and Exalted is Allah. And I am not of the Mushrikin." (Qur'an 12:108)
Allah SWT commands His Prophet SAW in this verse to teach the people and make clear to them his Religion and his Sunnah and his way of life and that of those who follow the call to Allah's Religion, and practice Tawheed, and that by so doing, he and those who obey him and believe in him are following Divine Guidance and acting upon knowledge and clear evidence; and they exalt their Lord and glorify Him above any association of partners, in His Lordship, in worship and in His Divine Names and Attributes; and he SWT is innocent of the polytheists and their Shirk.
Benefits Derived From This Verse
- The obligation of sincerity and purity of faith, when calling to (the worship of) Allah.
- The call should be based upon a foundation of truth and evidence.
- The obligation to stay free from Shirk and its followers.
- That deeds are not accepted unless they are in conformity with that which was brought by the Messenger of Allah.
- The obligation to exalt Allah above all that is not becoming His Majesty.
Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed
That it proves that the way of the Prophet SAW and those who follow him is to call the people to the religion of Allah SWT, and this embodies the testimony that none is worthy of worship except Allah SWT.
It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas ra that Allah's Messenger SAW said when he sent Mu`aaz ra to Yemen: "You are going to a people who are from the People of the Book: So the first thing to which you call them should be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah SWT." - And in another narration: "that they testify to the Oneness of Allah SWT." - "And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah SWT has made compulsory upon them five prayers every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah SWT has made incumbent upon them a charity (Zakah) which is to be taken from the rich among them and given to their poor. And if they obey you in that then be careful not to take the best of their wealth (as Zakah), and be careful of the supplication of those who have suffered injustice, for there is no obstacle between it and Allah SWT". (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
The Prophet SAW sent Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal ra as his representative to Yemen, and he advised him of what was required of him there, beginning with the call to worship Allah SWT, Alone, without partners, and that if they accepted that then he must inform them of the greatest obligations upon them after Tawheed, which are: prayer and Zakah; and that if they obeyed this, then it is incumbent upon him to maintain justice with them, and not to wrong them or cause suffering to them by taking the best of their property as Zakah, for that would constitute an injustice to them and might provoke them and cause them to invoke Allah SWT upon him - and the invocation of the oppressed and the wronged is never rejected by Allah SWT.
Benefits Derived From This Hadith
- That the first thing to which the Du'ah (1) must call is Tawheed - the Oneness of Allah SWT.
- The obligation to call to Allah SWT with wisdom, step-by-step, beginning with the most important, then the next most important, and so on.
- The obligation of observing five daily prayers.
- That witr prayer (2) is not obligatory.
- The obligation upon those who have more than they need to fulfill their basic every-day needs to pay Zakah.
- That Zakah is not paid to the unbeliever. (3)
- That the fuqaraah` are legitimate recipients of Zakah.
- The permissibility of paying Zakah to one category of recipients from amongst the permitted categories.
- That it is not permissible to pay Zakah outside the country unless there is no one in need of Zakah within it.
- It is not permissible to pay Zakah to the wealthy.
- The forbiddance of taking Zakah from the best of the people's wealth.
- The forbiddance of any kind of injustice.
- That the invocation of the wronged is answered.
Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed
That it proves that the first thing with which the da'iyah must begin his message is the call to testify that none is worthy of worship except Allah SWT.
- Although they are two of the five pillars of Islam, fasting and Hajj have not been mentioned in this Hadith; this is because at the time Allah's Prophet SAW made this statement, those pillars which had been made obligatory upon the Muslims were Tawheed and belief in the Messengership of Muhammad SAW, prayer and Zakah - all of which were made incumbent from the beginning of Islam, while the time of fasting and Hajj had not come.
- It is mentioned in this Hadith the obligation to be careful of the supplication of those who have been wronged, because there is no obstacle between it and Allah SWT, and Allah SWT has said in Qur'an: "Is not He [better than your gods] Who responds to the distressed one when he calls Him?" (Qur'an 27:62)
And it is mentioned in another Hadith that the answer to the one who calls upon Allah SWT is of three types:
- That it is answered quickly,
- That some of his sins will be blotted out in accordance with the measure of the supplication, or,
- That it will be stored up for him on the Day of Resurrection (4). We may reconcile this Hadith with the above narration by saying that the latter concerns the one who is not oppressed or distressed, while the former concerns the supplication of one who suffers oppression or distress for it is answered even if after some time, and Allah SWT alleviates his distress and bestows His Mercy upon him.
It is reported on the authority of S'ad Ibn Sahl that he said: "Allah's Messenger SAW said on the Day of (the Battle of) Khaibar: "Tomorrow I shall indeed give the flag to someone who loves Allah SWT and His Messenger SAW and is loved by Allah SWT and His Messenger SAW: Allah SWT will grant victory under his leadership. The people spent the night absorbed in discussing who might be given the flag. In the morning, they came eagerly to Allah's Messenger SAW, each of them hoping to be given the flag. Allah's Messenger SAW asked: "Where is `Ali Ibn Abi Talib ra?" They replied: "He is suffering from an eye ailment." He was sent for and brought to the Prophet SAW who spat in his eyes and prayed for him whereupon he was cured as if he had not been in pain before. Allah's Messenger SAW then gave him the flag and said: "Advance with ease and gentleness until you arrive in their midst, then call them to Islam and inform them of their duties to Allah SWT in Islam. By Allah SWT! If He may guide through you a single man to Islam, it would be better for you than red camels."
Benefits Derived From This Hadith
- Evidence of the virtue of `Ali Ibn Abi Talib ra.
- Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love.
- Evidence of the Prophet's miracle.
- The love of the Companions for all that is good.
- The questioning of the Imam about the individual members of his congregation and his concern for their welfare.
- The obligation of belief in Divine Ordainment and Predestination, as shown by the Companions when the flag was given to the one who did not ask for it.
- The obligation of the leader to behave in a good manner, with gentleness, but with firmness.
- The obligation to begin with the call to Islam before engaging in battle for the benefit of those who have not heard the message.
- The testimony of belief in the Oneness of Allah SWT and the Messengership of His Prophet, Muhammad SAW is not sufficient unless accompanied by deeds.
- The permissibility of swearing in Allah's name concerning one's pronouncements as a means of emphasis.
- The permissibility of invoking Allah's name without calling upon Him for a definite purpose.
- The virtue of calling people to Allah SWT and of teaching.
Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed
That it proves that the first thing with which the caller to Islam should begin and the first pillar of Islam is the Shahaadatan (5).
The position of the Imam with regard to the disbelievers, if they are from the People of the Book, is that he gives them three choices in this order:
- To embrace Islam,
- To pay the jizyah or,
- To fight.
As for the idol-worshipers, their choices are but two:
- To embrace Islam or,
- To fight (6).
- Du'ah: Plural of da'iyah (caller to Islam).
- Witr prayer: Literally, odd prayer; so called because it consists of an odd number of raka'ahs (units) - one, three five etc. - it is performed any time after'ishaa` prayer, until fajr. Having said that it is not obligatory, it is strongly recommended, for the Prophet (saas) never abandoned it, even when travelling.
- ...unless he is one of those whose heart is inclined to Islam, for Allah (swt), says: (Qur'an 9:60).
- Narrated by At-Tirmizi.
- The Shahaadatan: The two testimonies (i) that none is worthy of worship but Allah (swt) and (ii) that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (saas).
- It is authentically reported that the Prophet (saas) said: "I was ordered to fight the people until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allah (swt)." (Narrated by Bukhari) and it is reported that the Prophet (saas) wrote to Munzir Ibn Sawaa, who was the leader of the people of Hajr: "As for the Arabs do not accept anything from them except Islam or (to be killed by) the sword, and as for the People of the Book and the Majiians, accept from them the jizyah." (Narrated by Al-Kalbi)